My favorite book on ethical philosophy is GOOD AND EVIL, A New Direction, by Richard Taylor.
For understanding the evidence and theory of evolution, any and all of the books on that subject by Richard Dawkins, and the book WHY EVOLUTION IS TRUE by Jerry A. Coyne. I also strongly recommend YOUR INNER FISH by Neil Shubin.
For an overall view, a "worldview" if you don't mind, all of the books of Carl Sagan since COSMOS. This would include COMET, PALE BLUE DOT, THE DEMON-HAUNTED WORLD, and TALES OF FORGOTTEN ANCESTORS.
Politically, My central concern is that we should make all efforts to put human civilization on a sustainable basis. I.E., we should avoid having our civilization collapse (and/or destroy itself fighting over resources on the way down). Between overpopulation, the pollution and depletion of groundwater, the exhaustion of fossil fuels ("Peak Oil"), the continuing degradation and erosion of croplands, the continuing hoarding of nuclear weapons and other WMD's by nations less than stable, and the rising threat of wholesale losses of cropland to climate change, we have many problems which our nation, and some others, are resolutely refusing to address. Two books on climate change I'd recommend would be STORMS OF MY GRANDCHILDREN by James Hansen, and THE WINDS OF CHANGE by Eugene Linden. See also COLLAPSE by Jared Diamond.
Dare I talk about economics? In my foolish youth I started out with Ayn Rand and Libertarianism, which led me to get my B.A. in Economics; so if anyone is interested in that sort of thing, let me recommend PROGRESS AND POVERTY by Henry George, NATURAL CAPITALISM by Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins, STEADY-STATE ECONOMICS and BEYOND GROWTH by Herman Daly, and (if you can stay awake reading them) ECO-ECONOMY and WORLD ON THE EDGE by Lester R. Brown. (Brown has done great work, if I were King of the World I'd enact his policies wholesale, but his writing style is emotionally flat.)
For fiction, I have a huge collection of science-fiction and fantasy. But if I had to pick one book that was dearest to my heart it would be THERE WILL BE TIME by Poul Anderson. I don't know if it is still in print.
Yeah, well, I hold NO text as Sacred..
Ahh, but, There is some good stuff out there!
I would start with anything by Mark Twain or Kurt Vonnegut and let my curiosity roam from there.
Everyone is different, ergo, so are their lists.
My own list is in constant flux, as am I.