The most likely reason is that aggressive behavior held, at some early stage in evolution, advantages for reproduction and survival. At a time when food was scarce, and illness ravaging, the more agressive individual may have had a clear survival advantage.
We see in many animal species a hierarchical structure in which the stongest male dominates and holds all the sexual cards until he dies or is displaced by a younger stronger male in a fight for leadership.
This may have been the organization of human societies at an early point when there were only small tribes of hunter-gatherers and agriculture had not yet developed. Only after the development of agriculture was cooperative behavior superior to hierarchy for the group survival.
There has always been cooperation, it is the nature of any social animal. Furthermore, there is no anthropological indication that hunter-gatherer tribes had that sort of male structure (dominates and holds all the sexual cards until he dies or is displaced by a younger). Penis size to body ratio, to the contrary, infers that females of early tribes practised promiscuity. The anthropological most likely scenario is that a small proportion of males and females - alpha males and alpha females - did most of the breeding, the and rest of the tribe had support roles.
There has always been a balance between violence and cooperation, between ingroup and outgroup. But as population sizes increase, the relative amount of resources diminishes, and this pushes the equilibrium, the larger the society the more violence, and the more top down dominance is necessary to maintain "order". That is how religion/patriarchy developed around 5 millennia ago, as a power/control tool. There is no real distinction between patriarchy and religion, one is the left hand, one is the right hand.
Today, as our population continues to increase and the ratio of resource availability continues to decrease, top down controls will continue de become stronger, to attempt to control the increased violence inescapable by overpopulation, and this is biologically true in most species.
Violence is not "evil", it is simply a stress reaction, it is simply the flip side of the coin of cooperation. One without the other is impossible. Only the balance between the two varies.
My point was carelessly worded. I meant to suggest that the balance between hierarchical social structures and cooperative social structures favored the former in pre-literate pre-agricultural tribal societies. Despite the immense variety of social structures in human societies hierarchy and dominance are still strong in most. It is almost irresistable to view social history as a struggle to achieve a balance between cooperation and hierarchy.
Here is a quote from one paper:
Dominance appears to be written deeply into our physiological, social,and cognitive functions. It emerges early as a defining trait of individuals(personality) and hence produces a propensity for human social groups toorganize themselves hierarchically, and for the majority of individuals todisplace responsibility for their actions by obeying authority. So large apart does it play in our social lives that it also shapes and modifies ourcognitive strategies and physiological responses
Do you have a reference for this point? I'm interested to read about it.
The anthropological most likely scenario is that a small proportion of males and females - alpha males and alpha females - did most of the breeding, the and rest of the tribe had support roles.
That seems to support the notion that some kind of social dominance hierarchy was the normal mode of organization in early tribal societies. Cooperation would have been present as well, but within a hierarchical structure.
Indeed. Cooperation always coexists with violence.
I like that reply TNT except that I wonder how promiscuity can be reconciled with alpha mating.
Inuit peoples (used to be called Eskimos) displayed some variation on this until very recently. Neither the male nor the female were sexually exclusive, but there was a definite alpha structure for both sexes. Alpha males did some choosing, alpha females did some choosing, others settled for leftovers or did not breed.Wolves display some variation in the alpha males / alpha females breeding pattern.
And of course chimps also display female promiscuity within an alpha male / alpha female structure.
There is really no serious biological/anthropological evidence for sexual monogamy in H.sapiens before modern religions, and parenting monogamy, somewhat older, began around the beginnings of patriarchy/religion, 5-6 kya, when males began to consciously understand their role in reproduction. And neither advanced at the same speed in different regions.
I would ideally like to see a reduction in violence, not only bodily violence, but systemic/structural violence, but I don't see that ever being realistic with a growing population.
The root of all evil could be pride. It is the obvious root of many evils. LIke greed, money, power, popularity and of course not being able to admit your wrong when you see someone else's point of view that is reasonable. Try to be humble and see how you can become.
Pride is a form of self delusion.
Yes it causes problems, like murder, suicide, greed and even demonstrations.
People need to realized that much of their own reality is illusion.
Buddhism teaches that our Self is an illusion.
Buddhism even taught this to Jesus, but he didn't listen and his pride got him executed and thrown into either an unmarked or mass grave.
He was never important enough for a tomb and certainly not for the mounting of guards for a dead person's body.
If those stories were true, there would be a lot more evidence in the Roman chronicles at the time, but they really didn't consider him as important, just another petty criminal.
For his followers to believe Jesus was that important is massive false Pride in their false hero.
Pride comes b4 a Fall!
Aye John Johnson :-D~
Dear John Johnson, it's YOU'RE wrong, not YOUR wrong. And yes, YOU'RE wrong. Once again, leave this site. You are not reasonable. You have invisible friends. You also can't read. This site is for Atheists ONLY. Sincerely, People who think. Now go away.
Beliefs! Friedrich Nietzsche, physicists and i think we do not believe. Beliefs such as morality are absolutes, nothing or at least very little is evil, good, bad, right, nor wrong. It may seem contradictory to say that there are no absolutes, because is kind of an absolute, but is possible that there are no absolutes other than just this one which makes makes it true? Morality or immoral bigotry is the cause of a lot of mistreatment to others. When someone judges another to be immoral, that person is no longer a person but something that deserves destruction. God says we and especially women are dirt and most women go along with that! Just because I am familiar with the bible does not mean i believe in god, btw.
And certainty, I have not met a human that is not certain that we are equal and therefore i deserve their disrespect such as "wow, you're full of shit, that's your opinion, etc, etc" they can be certain that i am full of shit because they are certain that we are equal and since they are certain they themselves are full of shit, certainly I am full of shit. Therefore uncritical thinking which is required to believe and to be certain about anything is what always justifies cruelty toward others. You're future is already determined, weather you will be murdered or murder based on what you believe to be true, so do not believe, think!
I have never met a thinking female, because it seems to me like she would think about what characteristics she wants her offspring to have and choose a mate accordingly, rather than how manly he makes her feel. Let me guess, certainly I am wrong? I wish i was but anybody who pursues power over happiness does so for only one reason and one reason only, ie to spread the misery of their existence. And power is what every woman requires in a relationship, so with every woman on this planet walking around hating herself and picking who to duplicate based on self hatred, not so hard to figure out why cruelty reigns is it? Certainly I am full of shit, right?